PTE ACADEMIC READING FILL IN THE BLANKS PRACTICE 3
Dr. Martin Luther King marked his importance in the civil rights …………. by mobilizing the Black community during a 382 day bus boycott. He was arrested; his home was bombarded. But the US Supreme Court declared bus segregation unconstitutional and Dr. King became the hero of Negroes. His non-violent ……….. were put to test in Birmingham, during a mass protest rally protesting against the desegregation of department store facilities. Dr. King was arrested and his followers suffered police brutalities Dr. King delivered the most passionate …………. of his career and “Time” magazine nominated him as its “Person of the Year” for 1963. A few months later he was named the recipient of the 1964 Nobel Peace Prize and the entire story of King’s struggle and his crusade to ……… the slums of Chicago were reported nationally and internationally.
Imagine the skyline of a modern …….. if the elevator did not exist. Buildings would be limited to five or six stories. Most of the architecture of the 20th and 21st century would be impossible. Office towers, hotels and high-rise apartments would hardly stand in their present form.The need for ……….. transport is as old as civilization. Over the centuries, mankind has employed ingenious forms of lifting. The earliest lifts used man, animal and water power to raise the load. Lifting devices relied on these basic ……….. of power from the early agricultural societies until the dawn of the Industrial RevolutionFrom ancient times through the Middle Ages, and into the 13th century, man or animal power was the driving ……… behind hoisting devices. In ancient Greece, Archimedes developed an ……… lifting device operated by ropes and pulleys, in which the hoisting ropes were coiled around a winding drum by a capstan and levers. By A.D. 80, gladiators and wild animals rode crude elevators up to the arena level of the Roman Coliseum.Medieval records contain numerous drawings of hoists lifting men and supplies to isolated locations. Among the most famous is the hoist at the monastery of St. Barlaam in Greece. The monastery stood on a pinnacle approximately (200 ft) above the ground. Its hoist, which employed a basket or cargo net, was the only means up or down.
On June 8th, 1924, two British climbers — Mallory and Irvine — were ……… from below, clambering over one of the major remaining obstacles of their route. The summit of Mt. Everest was only a few hours away. Swirling mists closed in and they were never seen again. Their …….. left unanswered a question that has ……….. mountaineers ever since: Had they reached the top? Even Sir Edmund Hillary — the first to certainly reach the top (and to return) — looked for signs of any possible predecessors.EarlyEveresters didn’t think so. Subsequent Pre WWII expeditions during better ……… and with greater resources were thwarted by the immensity of the challenge. But one thing was left out of the early pessimistic assessments — the effect of the controversial use by the two climbers of “artificial” breathing oxygen. Many contemporaries felt its use was unsporting, and angrily discounted evidence to show that climbing speeds easily doubled with its use.The next expedition, that of 1933, retraced Mallory and Irvine’s steps and ……… one of their ice axes some 250 yards from the First Step obstacle. For decades, that was the only other clue as to their fate. In the early 1970’s I studied the best available topographic maps of Mt. Everest, and noticed that the site of the ice axe lay above a large snow terrace. Would a falling climber come to rest on the “8200 m Snow Terrace”? And if so, would the cameras each of them was known to be carrying, still hold the ………. of how high they got? After extensive tests, Eastman Kodak thought “fully printable images” could be obtained if the camera was found intact.
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