PTE summarize written text passages 73

PTE summarize written text passages

Read the passages below and summarize them using one sentence in not more than 75 words(30-35 words). Type your response in the comment section at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish each passage. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

1.

As many as 60,000 small farmers in the region of Andhra Pradesh, southern India, have taken to farming cotton instead of food crops. Some 20 of them have recently committed suicide by eating lethal doses of pesticide.Most of the farmers are extremely poor. Attracted by cheap loans from pesticides traders and the prospect of a quick buck, they borrowed heavily to raise cotton on small plots of land.Whitefly, boll weevils and caterpillars multiplied and destroyed their crops, despite the constant application of pesticides. The average yield of cotton fields in Andhra Pradesh fell by more than half in just one year. Now the farmers are in no position to repay the loans or feed their families.

The suicide of Samala Mallaiah in Nagara village grabbed media headlines. He owned one acre of land, leased two more and grew cotton on all three. After making a loss in the first year, he leased yet more land in an attempt to recover. Confronted with falling prices, mounting debts and pest attacks, he committed harakiri. ‘Cotton has given us shattered dreams,’ said one old farmer in Nagara village.Nearly half the pesticides used in India go into protecting cotton, the most important commercial crop in the country. However, pests have shown increased immunity to a range of pesticides. Last year there were heavy crop losses due to leaf-curl, which is caused by the dreaded whitefly. This nondescript, milky-white fly sucks sap from the cotton leaves, making them curl and dry up. The fly struck first in Pakistan and north-western India. Then it turned south.According to the Ministry of Agriculture, the crop losses and destruction in Andhra Pradesh arose from the repeated application of excessive amounts of chemicals – a practice actively encouraged by pesticides traders.

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2.

Gases are made up of particles which move with rapid random motion. The size of the particles and any intermolecular forces can be ignored unless the particles are close together at high pressure or at low temperature.
In liquids, the particles are in a state of order intermediate between that of a gas and that of a solid. At any instant in time the arrangement of particles resembles a somewhat disordered solid. Over a period of time the disordered regions allow all the particles in the liquid to move through the liquid. The particles are held together by forces similar to those in a solid.
In solids, the particles remain in fixed positions, about which they can vibrate. The forces which hold the particles together can be ionic attractions, covalent bonds, metallic bonds, hydrogen bonds, dipole-dipole forces or van der Waals’ forces. Heat energy is required to change a solid into a liquid at its melting point. The energy is used to loosen the forces which hold the particles together. This heat energy is called the enthalpy of fusion.
More energy is needed to change phase from a liquid into a gas than to change from a solid into a liquid. The energy is used to overcome the forces which hold the particles together so that the particles can be completely separated. This heat energy is called the enthalpy of vaporization.

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13 thoughts on “PTE summarize written text passages 73

  1. Farming cotton instead of food crops in the region of southern India caused many farmers in that area suicide due to the stresses from failure in cotton farming such as, deflation in cotton price, pest attacks, ineffective pesticide and mounting debt on loaned land.

  2. The reason for the disheartening plight of the farmers who take up huge debts for cotton cultivation but are met with vast destruction of their crops can be attributed to the rampant usage of large quantities of pesticides making the pests resistant to almost any kind of chemical leading to colossal crop damage and loss.

  3. There has been a huge loss to farmers cultivating cotton primarily because of increasing adaptability of insects to pesticide, this further is leading to extreme conditions of suicide by farmers due to the augmented amount of debts.

  4. For conversion of a substance from its current state to other from solid, liquid or gas we need extreme conditions of pressure and temperature so that we can detach or attach them at their molecular level.

  5. Pests the growing concern for Indian farmers with huge debt and scarce resources where Pakistan arrived whitefly destroyed most of cotton crop last year and leave them with no choice but to use excess harmful chemicals.

  6. Particles in any three basic states held together with same types of bonds which require variable amount of energy to transformed into other states usually known as enthalpy of fusion for solid and enthalpy of vaporization for liquid.

  7. In India, In Andhra Pradesh farmers have taken farming cotton instead of food crops expecting a good profits in result which was lead to committing suicides in some of the families because of crop losses due to leaf-curl by the dreaded white fly.

  8. According to government, extensive use of chemicals in pesticides augmented in pests immunity which eventually caused losses and destruction of crops in Madhya Pradesh and linked to farmer’s suicide.

  9. South India farmer’s crops are decline drastically due to pest and poor land and they are not able to pay off loan taken to buy pesticides which resulted in committing suicide.

  10. Gases are made of particals which are hold together with similar forces in solid and liquid state can be separated by heated energy called enthalpy of vaporization

  11. The state of the material is dependent on the intermolecular force and location of the partials respective to the each other; However, it can be changed from one to other by providing the energy from the outside and weakening the forces.

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