PTE writing practice paragraphs-summarize written text 68

PTE writing practice paragraphs-summarize written text

Read the passages below and summarize them using one sentence in not more than 75 words(30-35 words). Type your response in the comment section at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish each passage. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

1.

A new form of lie detector that works by voice analysis and which can be used without a subject’s knowledge has been introduced in Britain. The unit is already widely employed by the police and private industry in the US, and some of its applications there raise serious worries about its potential here. The Dektor psychological stress analyser (PSE) is used by private industry for pre-employment screening, investigating thefts, and even periodic staff checks. Although at least 600 of the devices are used in the US, there are apparently only three in Britain. Burns International Security Services showed its PSE at the International Fire and Security Exhibition in London last week. Philip Hicks, assistant manager of Burns’ Electron Division and the Burns official trained to use the PSE, said that one of the other two units was being employed by a private firm for pre-employment checks.
In addition to the normally understood voice generation mechanisms – vibrations of the vocal chords and resonance of cavities inside the head – there is a third component caused by vibration of the muscles inside the mouth and throat. Normally, but not under stress, these voluntary muscles vibrate at 8-12 Hz, and this adds a clearly noticeable frequency-modulated component to the voice. The PSE works by analysing this infrasonic FM component. Dektor claims that the muscle tightening occurs very quickly, and can change from one word to the next, so that it is possible to pick out a word or phrase that caused stress.
Dektor emphasises that the device shows only stress, not dishonesty. Three steps are suggested to overcome this difficulty. First, the subject is supposed to see a full list of the questions in advance. Second, there are ‘neutral’ questions and one to which the subject is specifically asked to lie. Third, if an individual shows stress on a vital question (such as Have you stolen more than £100 in the last six months?), then additional questions must be asked to ensure that this does not reflect an earlier theft or the subject’s knowledge of someone else responsible.
The standard report recommended by Dektor is simply the statement ‘After careful analysis, it is the opinion of this Examiner that the Subject’s chart did contain specific reaction, indicative of deception, to the relevant questions listed below.’ And Hicks admitted that if a person showed stress and Hicks was unable to ascertain just what caused the stress, he would assume that the stress was ‘indicative of deception’.

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PTE writing practice paragraphs-summarize written text

2.

The coffee plant, an evergreen shrub or small tree of African origin, begins to produce fruit 3 or 4 years after being planted. The fruit is hand-gathered when it is fully ripe and a reddish purple in colour. The ripened fruits of the coffee shrubs are processed where they are produced to separate the coffee seeds from their covering and from the pulp. Two different techniques are in use: a wet process and a dry process.

The wet process First the fresh fruit is pulped by a pulping machine. Some pulp still clings to the coffee, however, and this residue is removed by fermentation in tanks. The few remaining traces of pulp are then removed by washing. The coffee seeds are then dried to a moisture content of about 12 per cent either by exposure to the sun or by hot-air driers. If dried in the sun, they must be turned by hand several times a day for even drying.

The dry process In the dry process the fruits are immediately placed to dry either in the sun or in hot-air driers. Considerably more time and equipment is needed for drying than in the wet process. When the fruits have been dried to a water content of about 12 per cent the seeds are mechanically freed from their coverings.

The characteristic aroma and taste of coffee only appear later and are developed by the high temperatures to which they are subjected during the course of the process known as roasting. Temperatures are raised progressively to about 220-230°C. This releases steam, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other volatiles from the beans, resulting in a loss of weight of between 14 and 23 per cent. Internal pressure of gas expands the volume of the coffee seeds from 30 to 100 per cent. The seeds become rich brown in colour; their texture becomes porous and crumbly under pressure. But the most important phenomenon of roasting is the appearance of the characteristic aroma of coffee, which arises from very complex chemical transformations within the beans. The coffee, on leaving the industrial roasters, is rapidly cooled in a vat where it is stirred and subjected to cold air propelled by a blower. Good quality coffees are then sorted by electronic sorters to eliminate the seeds that roasted badly. The presence of seeds which are either too light or too dark depreciates the quality.

PTE writing practice paragraphs-summarize written text

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11 thoughts on “PTE writing practice paragraphs-summarize written text 68

  1. A new type of lie detector is used by police and private companies for pre-employment and the device shows only stress not dishonesty so if stress was found then it is considered as deception.

  2. Britain using the new lie detector bases on voice analysis which is already employed in US in many organization however these lie detectors having a constraints of stress which is not symbol dishonesty and to overcome this problem Dektor has taken some steps.

  3. Coffee is an African popular tree which gives the fruit almost after 4 year and coffee manufacturing has several steps from seed gathering to a fine coffee, most importantly, wet process in which pulp removed and dry process which removes moisture and finally roasting process which gives the aroma flavour.

  4. The coffee fruit is collected from plants after it’s fully ripe and then seeds are dried by a wet or dry process, later roasting is done to them and grains are sorted based on their quality.

  5. The journey of aromatic, tasty, coffee seeds production from coffee plant fruit through a complex chemical processes involving de-seeding, drying, and roasting to give it a trademark coffee aroma.

  6. The writer wrote about the ineffectiveness of a new model of lie detector which only communicates the stress of a subject and not dishonesty, though the new technology is widely used in the US, there are concerns over it’s use in Britain.

  7. The step by step process of producing good quality rich brown aromatic coffee seeds from its planting, to fruit production after three to four years, to its manual harvest, then to its pulp removal either by dry or wet process and finally to the roasting stage where extreme chemical changes occur in the bean to yield the final product.

  8. Dektor PSE is used to as a lie detector which identifies the stress in the voice and not the dishonesty . It is used in USA and Britain for pre-employment checks and by police investigations .

  9. Process of Harvesting a coffee seed and the step by step process of making a aromatic coffee bean when and how the aroma is achieved is explained in detail.

  10. Stealth equipped lie detector deployed in Britain and US, raises concerns as device only show stress while subject is speaking and not honesty hence recommended measures may help while performing test but not entirely.

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