READ THE PASSAGE BELOW AND SUMMARIZE IT USING ONE SENTENCE. YOUR RESPONSE WILL BE JUDGED ON THE QUALITY OF YOUR WRITING AND ON HOW WELL YOUR RESPONSE PRESENTS THE KEY POINTS IN THE PASSAGE.
Summarize written text
1.An important way in which science has changed people and made them more civilized is by making them more tolerant. A tolerant person is one who does not interfere with other people, even if he thinks they are wrong, but he is prepared to let them think what they like and say what they think. If he thinks they are wrong he may try to persuade them to believe differently, but he will not try to force them.
This may not seem a very important point. A great deal of the misery of mankind in the past has sprung from people being unwilling to tolerate other people thinking differently from themselves. This intolerance has been particularly common in religious matters. All over the world, people have been killed and have tortured other people for not believing the same things as they did or for worshipping God in a different way.
Most religious beliefs are based on faith, and the point about them is that although you may be quite convinced of them yourself, you cannot be sure of persuading other people to believe them too because you cannot produce evidence for them. Now, it is with regard to beliefs of this kind that people are now more tolerant than they used to be. Formerly if a man thought differently about religious matters from his neighbours, he was very likely to be burnt alive. And if he did not believe in God and had no religion at all he was thought exceedingly wicked and was punished. This is no longer so.
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2.The world of communication has bound the globe in its network. No customer, colleague or business associate is farther than a phone call or an e-mail away. The communication technology is a landmark in itself. Telephonic or internet chatting scores high, judged on the criterion of speed. But this conversation lacks the warmth and the feel that a face to face conversation can lend. The motivation that a pat gives with ‘Thank You’ and ‘good job’ has its own significance. Such appreciation can be a strong morale booster. A telephone conversation is devoid of that personal touch.
Studies have confirmed that communication has less to do with what one says than with the way it is expressed. The gestures and facial expressions involved mean much more than the content. An experiment performed on babies proved this point. A group of four-month old babies were shown faces on a screen Sometimes the faces developed an eye contact with babies and sometimes they averted their stare. Slowly an observation was made that babies who had no verbal communication, responded to facial non-verbal communication also. So we can well understand how important is a healing touch or a loving gesture of face to face conversation. The only ones who have benefited from these text communications are those who are shy. Some people face anxiety and are at a loss of words at times of face to face communication. For them this type of distant chatting is quite helpful.
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3.The details of hypnotic operation have been thoroughly classified and many elements of interest have been developed. All these make a body of evidence which will assist us in answering the question, what is hypnotism.
Modern scientific study has pretty conclusively established the following facts:
- Idiots, babies under three years old, and hopelessly insane people cannot be hypnotized.
- No one can be hypnotized unless the operator can make him concentrate his attention for a reasonable length of time. Concentration of attention, whatever the method of producing hypnotism, is absolutely necessary.
- Persons not easily hypnotized are those said to be neurotic (or those affected with hysteria). By “hysteria” is not meant nervous excitability, necessarily. In medical science “hysteria” is an irregular action of the nervous system. It will sometimes show itself by severe pains in the arm, when in reality there is nothing whatever to cause pain; or it will raise a swelling on the head quite without cause. It is a tendency to nervous disease which in severe cases may lead to insanity. The word neurotic is a general term covering affection of the nervous system. It includes hysteria and much else beside.
The expert hypnotizer often tries to rummage through the human mind, looking for small pieces of evidence that might link turbulence today to occurrences forgotten.
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