PTE Academic writing summarize written text sample paragraphs
1.The whole progress of human civilization beyond its earliest stages has been made possible by the invention of methods of thought. These methods enable us to interpret and forecast the working of nature more successfully than we could if we merely followed the line of least resistance in the use of our minds. However, when applied in politics, they still represent a difficult and uncertain art rather than a science producing its effects with mechanical accuracy.
If Plato could visit us now, he would learn that while our artisans proceed by rigorous and confident processes to exact results, our statesmen, like the artisans of ancient Athens, still trust empirical maxims and personal skill. Why is it, he would ask us, that valid reasoning has proved to be so much more difficult in politics than in the physical sciences?
Our first answer might be found in the character of the material with which political reasoning has to deal. The universe which presents itself to our reason is the same as that which presents itself to our feelings and impulses—an unending stream of sensations and memories – every one of which is different from every other. Before these feelings and impulses, unless we can select and recognize and simplify, we must stand helpless and unable either to act or think.
Exact reasoning requires exact comparison. In the desert or the forest there were few things which our ancestors could compare exactly. The heavenly bodies seem, indeed, to have been the first objects of consciously exact reasoning, because their position and movement could be exactly compared from night to night. The position and movement of objects in politics is quite difficult indeed.
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2.A study of society starts with the human beings living together. In the process of human evolution sociability seems a quality ingrained in human nature. Every individual has his own personality that belongs to him apart from every other individual, but the perpetuation and development of that personality is dependent on relations with other personalities and with the physical environment which limits his activity. As an individual his primary interest is in self, but he finds by experience that he cannot survive in solitude. His impulses, his feelings, and his ideas are due to the relations that he has with that which is outside of himself. He may exercise choice, but it is within the limits set by these outside relations. He may make use of what they can do for him or he may antagonize them, at least he cannot ignore them. How the individual may best adapt himself to his environment and adapt the environment to his own needs helps establish certain definite relationships. Any group of individuals, who have thus consciously established relationships with one another and with their social environment, is a society. The relationships through which the interplay of social forces is constantly going on make up the social organization. The readjustments of these relations for the better adaptation of one individual to another, or to his environment, make up the process of social development. A society which remains in equilibrium is termed static; that which is changing is called dynamic.
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3.The treasure of wisdom and science, which all men desire by an instinct of nature, infinitely surpasses all the riches of the world; in respect of which precious stones are worthless; in comparison with which silver is clay and pure gold is just a little sand; at whose splendour the sun and the moon are dark; compared with whose marvelous sweetness honey is bitter to the taste. In books I find the dead as if they were alive; in books I foresee things to come; in books warlike affairs are set forth; from books come forth the laws of peace. We must consider what pleasantness of teaching there is in books, how easy, how secret! How safely we lay bare the poverty of human ignorance to books without feeling any shame! They are masters who instruct us without rod or ferule, without angry words, without money. The value of books is unspeakable; no dearness of price ought to hinder a man from the buying of books, if he has the money that is demanded for them, unless it be to withstand the malice of the seller or to await a more favourable opportunity of buying. For if it is wisdom only that makes the price of books, which is an infinite treasure to mankind, and if the value of books is immeasurable, how shall the bargain be shown to be dear where an infinite good is being bought?
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4.Even though Louis Braille died when he was only forty-three years old he succeeded in devising a system of reading and writing for the blind which is now taught all over the world. Braille lost his sight accidentally as a child. Nevertheless, he was able to complete his education at a school for the blind in Paris and become a teacher. In his day, the few books that were available for blind people were printed in big, raised type. The letters used were those of the ordinary alphabet. The reading of such books required immense effort. Not only that, writing was almost impossible for a blind person who was still restricted to an alphabet which was extraordinarily difficult to reproduce on paper.
Braille’s idea was to use raised dots instead of letters. He evolved a system making use of only six dots in all, various combinations of which made it possible to represent not only each letter in the alphabet but also punctuation marks, numbers and musical notations. Reading and writing have thus been enormously simplified. The sensitive fingers of a blind person can travel rapidly over the dots: and there is a small machine, something like a typewriter, which enables the blind to write quickly and clearly. Braille’s marvellous invention was the best help one ever could render not only for the blind of one’s own age but also for those of ages to come.
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