PTE Academic writing summarize written text
1.Under the present system of mass education by classes too much stress is laid on teaching and too little on active learning. The child is not encouraged to discover on his own powers, thus losing intellectual independence and all capacity to judge for himself. The over-taught child is the advertising-believing propaganda–swallowing, demagogue–led man. Moreover, lessons in class leave him mainly unoccupied. He has to be coerced into learning what does not interest him and the information acquired mechanically is rapidly forgotten. Quite naturally, lessons in class keep him only superficially preoccupied, keeping the mind largely unoccupied of ideas. A strict external discipline becomes necessary unless there is to be chaos and pandemonium. The child learns to obey, not to control himself. He loses moral as well as intellectual independence.
Such are the main defects in the current system of mass education. Many others could be mentioned but these are defects of detail. We need a new system of universal education of the same kind as proved itself so successful in the training of detectives and infants, but modified so as to be suitable for older boys and girls. We need a system of individual education.
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2.A contest in itself is almost an absorbing spectacle. Games, better than anything else, provide us contests. Here are bloodless battles – dogfights out of which both the dogs emerge exhausted but cheerful. Here is all the keenness of rivalry without its murderous malevolence. Man, it appears, can understand nothing save by comparison. He can understand strength only by comparing one man’s strength with another’s and speed only by comparing one horse’s speed with another’s. Hence, his passionate interest in every sort of game – in which strong men are pitted against each other, or in any fine physical equality – is seen in its relative perfection. As we read history, it reveals itself as an account of tens of thousands of championships won or lost.
Contest has always been there – be it a contest between rival men, or a contest between rival nations. A public man’s biography is largely the biography of his chief enemy. Here he seems to have lived most keenly, where he had to struggle most desperately for victory. Over a period of time his worst moments get transformed into his best memories. Here, out of the overflow of his keenness, some keenness seems to pour into our own being as we read, and our sleepy attention is awakened as though by a struggle of our own times. No doubt, there are other important things in life besides conflict, but there are not many other things so inevitably interesting.
3.The rains, at length, in a great measure cease; but it requires some months for the water to run off and leave the valley dry. As soon as it is gone, there springs up from the whole surface of the ground which has been thus submerged a most rank and luxuriant vegetation. This vegetation, now wholly regulated and controlled by the hand of man, must have been, in its original and primeval state, of a very peculiar character. It must have consisted of such plants only as could exist under the condition of having the soil in which they grew laid, for a quarter of the year, wholly under water. This circumstance, probably, prevented the valley of the Nile from having been, like other fertile tracts of land, encumbered, in its native state, with forests or with wild beasts.
This most extraordinary valley seems thus to have been formed and preserved by Nature herself for the special possession of man. She herself seems to have held it in reserve for him from the very morning of creation, refusing admission into it to every plant and every animal that might hinder or disturb his occupancy and control. And if he were to abandon it now for a thousand years, and then return to it once more, he would find it just as he left it, ready for his immediate possession. There would be no wild beasts that he must first expel, and no tangled forests would have sprung up, that his axe must first remove. Nature is the husbandman who keeps this garden of the world in order.
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4.To examine the organs of digestion one needs to study the appetite and manner of taking food and drink. A healthy animal has good appetite. Loss of appetite does not point to a diseased condition but comes from a variety of causes, some might be physiological. Excitement, strange surroundings, fatigue and hot weather may all cause loss of appetite. Sometimes depression, fever, weakness, stomach disorders or difficulty in swallowing also cause diminished appetite. A few times there is desire to eat abnormal things like roots, grass, soil due to chronic disturbance of nutrition, and it is variably linked to one’s psychological aspects also. In times of inward happiness one tends to binge more on food but in times of turmoil and tension one loses the desire to eat even if hunger persists. At times, thirst faces this imbalance as well. Especially in times of crisis or shock your mouth goes dry. So, hunger loss can not only be connected with appetite loss due to disease, there are profound psychic disturbances also attributing to its fall.
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