PTE academic writing test-summarize written text samples 76

PTE academic writing test-summarize written text samples

Read the passages below and summarize them using one sentence in not more than 75 words(30-35 words). Type your response in the comment section at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish each passage. Your response will be judged on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.

1.

A pulse laser is basically a device for storing energy and then releasing it all at once to give a very intense beam of light. The heart of the laser is a crystal or tube of gas or liquid into which energy is pumped. This is usually done by surrounding it with a device to produce a powerful flash of light or an intense beam of radio waves or electrons. As pumping occurs, more and more of the atoms inside take up energy and are excited to high energy states. Suddenly an atom spontaneously returns to its first energy state and gives out a particle of light(a photon).

This photon strikes another excited atom and causes it to produce another photon. Very rapidly, a cascade of photons develops. The crystal or tube is closed at both ends by mirrors and the photons bounce to and fro between them, building up the cascade. A proportion of this light is able to escape through one of the mirrors, which is half-silvered, and an intense flash of light emerges from the laser.

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2.

Water pollution affects oceans, streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, and groundwater, and can be caused by natural impurities or human activities that pollute the nearby water or water supplies.Natural impurities in water are sometimes, but not always, pollutants. They are divided into three categories of particles: suspended particles that absorb light and make water cloudy, such as beach sand, coal dust, and bacteria; colloidal particles, such as soot and some viruses, which cannot be removed from water by ordinary filtration and cause the water to look cloudy when observed at right angles to a beam of light; and dissolved matter, which are the ‘smallest impurities in water, including molecules and ions of various substances, such as chloride or sodium ions or carbon dioxide molecules.

Human activities are often the cause of localized water pollution, as water becomes contaminated with heavy metals, toxic chemicals, and bacteria. Rivers may experience oil and chemical spills, untreated sewage runoff from homes and industry, and nonpoint source pollution, such as contaminated runoff from highways, parking lots, and agricultural fields. Groundwater (or subsurface water) may be contaminated by the infiltration of pollutants from landfills and septic tanks, or by percolation of water containing contaminated runoff. Parts of the ocean are sometimes polluted by oil tanker spills and garbage dumping.

PTE academic writing test-summarize written text samples

3.

We speak with our vocal organs, but we converse with our entire bodies; conversation consists of much more than a simple interchange of spoken words. The term paralanguage is increasingly commonly used to refer to non-verbal communicating activities which accompany verbal behavior in conversation. Anyone with a professional interest in spoken language is likely, sooner or later, to have to take an interest in paralanguage too.

Paralinguistic phenomena are neither idiosyncratic and personal, on the one hand, nor generally human, on the other. They must, therefore, be culturally determined, and so, as one would expect, they differ from social group to social group. They differ a great deal, and the differences go with language differences, even with dialect differences within languages, though they sometimes cut across linguistic boundaries. These aspects of human behavior are bound therefore to interest language teachers, psychiatrists, anthropologists, speech therapists, and of course linguists and phoneticians too. Their systematic investigation started comparatively recently, though a desultory interest in them is of long standing. However, a great deal has been done during the last few years – particularly, interestingly enough, by, or in collaboration with, psychiatrists; and I would like here to summarize, sometimes critically, what has so far been accomplished in this area.

Paralinguistic phenomena are non-linguistic elements in conversation. They occur alongside spoken language, interact with it, and produce together with it a total system of communication. They are not necessarily continuously simultaneous with spoken words. They may also be interspersed among them, or precede them, or follow them, but they are always integrated into a conversation considered as a complete linguistic interaction. The study of paralinguistic behavior is part of the study of conversation: the conversational use of spoken language cannot be properly understood unless paralinguistic elements are taken into account.

PTE academic writing test-summarize written text samples

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5 thoughts on “PTE academic writing test-summarize written text samples 76

  1. Pulse laser, an energy storage device produces a cascade of photons, which takes place when atoms are excited to high energy state and returns to its first energy state.
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    Not only natural impurities such as suspended particles, bacteria and colloidal particles but also other factors like heavy metals, toxic chemicals and bacteria due to human activities are the causes of freshwater pollution.

  2. Water pollution can be caused by natural impurities as suspended, colloidal and dissolved particles while some human activities such as usage of metals, chemicals and bacteria are another major elements of water contamination.

  3. Although natural impurities hardly pollute waters but localized water pollution involving human activity do so with metals, chemicals and bacteria from various sources that even contaminated natural reservoirs like groundwater.

  4. Non-verbal form of communication referred as Paralinguisitic that does not pertains to any individual or social group but rather its diversity attracts experts to analyse which indicates although its not language but it comply the required system of communication.

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