PTE ACADEMIC READING REORDER
A. Now, Polybius, if we forget Aristotle for the moment, was to become the main authority on the three types of the constitution and the cycles through which they pass, becoming more corrupt as they do so: kingship turns into tyranny, aristocracy to oligarchy, and democracy into mob rule.
B. The constitution was then at its healthiest, while that of the Carthaginians was already in decline because in Polybius’ opinion it was becoming more democratic.
C. Polybius believed that this progression could be halted at least temporarily by keeping the three elements held in some kind of balance, and the Romans achieved this not by abstract reasoning but by trial and error.
D. The Roman state was tested almost to destruction by the defeat at Cannae by the Carthaginians led by Hannibal – and according to the historian Polybius, it was only what he called the “peculiar virtues” of the Roman constitution that allowed it to survive this crisis.
TEST – B
A. In the late 18’h century, groups of skilled workers began to control the hiring of apprentices, and bargained with employers for better working conditions, but, as the movement grew, these trade unions tried to find ways of creating an alliance among themselves.
B. The first meeting of the TI·ades Union Congress took place in Manchester, at which thirty-four delegates represented well over a hundred thousand trade union members.
C. Trade unions were legalized in an Act of 1871, and by the end of the century, more than one and a half million workers were members. Conditions for workers slowly improved over the years, but it wasn’t until 1974 that legislation covering the health and safety of all employees was introduced.
D. Until the 19th century, workers were given little or no protection. Child labor was common, as were long hours worked in unsafe conditions for minimal pay.
Correct order: 1 d 2b 3a 4c
B Correct order: ld 2a 3b 4c