Unemployment is a fairly popular word these days. Many times, urbanisation is seen as an answer to the widespread unemployment. Though, in this essay, I will argue that urbanisation is not a solution to unemployment.
There are many reasons why people support urbanisation to combat unemployment. Firstly, urbanisation opens up opportunities in every sector. New industries provide employment choices to the people. Secondly, industrialisation is accompanied by better housing, education, medical and transport facilities. Hence, quality of life improves for many.
Despite the merits of urbanisation, there are many demerits we overlook. The following reasons demonstrate the argument-Uneven population distribution – Urbanisation leads to a change in demographics. The urban areas are more densely populated than the rural areas. For example, even though Tokyo is the most populated cities in the world, the population in the rest of Japan is dwindling. This leads to a neglect of the villages which have been untouched by urbanisation.
Poor living conditions – A sudden demographic shift can be overwhelming. The changes in the city are not properly mapped out. Hence, illegal housing increases. This also puts a lot of pressure on resources, education, medical facilities etc. Rapid crime growth and poor sanitation are also a consequence. For example, every urbanized city in the world has a higher rate of crime, mental illnesses etc compared to the other states of their respective countries.
Extreme competition – A large population increases the competition in the job market. For one vacant post, there will be several qualified professionals applying for it. Even urbanisation doesn’t guarantee that a person would get employment according to his/her qualifications.
To sum up, urbanisation is a short-term solution to unemployment. Rather than creating urbanised hubs, even development across the country should be the realized. Imparting skills and education can help the poor make a better living.
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