Repeated SUMMARIZE WRITTEN TEXT-Exam memories
- The Year Without Summer
In 1815 on the island of Sumbawa in Indonesia, a handsome and long-quiescent mountain
named Tambora exploded spectacularly, killing a hundred thousand people with its blast and
associated tsunamis. It was the biggest volcanic explosion in ten thousand years—150 times
the size of Mount St. Helens, equivalent to sixty thousand Hiroshima-sized atom bombs. The news
didn’t travel terribly fast in those days.
In London, The Times ran a small story— actually a letter from a merchant—seven months
after the event. But by this time Tambora’s effects were already being felt. Thirty-six cubic
miles of smoky ash, dust, and grit had diffused through the atmosphere, obscuring the Sun’s
rays and causing the Earth to cool. Sunsets were unusually but blearily colorful, an effect
memorably captured by the artist.J. M. W. Turner, who could not have been happier, but mostly
the world existed under an oppressive, dusky pall. It was this deathly dimness that inspired the
Byron lines above.
Spring never came and summer never warmed: 1816 became known as the year without summer.
Crops everywhere failed to grow. In Ireland, a famine and associated typhoid epidemic killed
sixty-five thousand people. In New England, the year became popularly known as Eighteen
Hundred and Froze to Death. Morning frosts continued until June and almost no planted seed
would grow. Short of fodder, livestock died or had to be prematurely slaughtered. In every way,
it was a dreadful year—almost certainly the worst for farmers in modern times. Yet globally the
temperature fell by only about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit. Earth’s natural thermostat, as scientists
would learn, is an exceedingly delicate instrument.
Although the news of the explosion of Tambora didn’t travel terribly fast in those days,
Tambora’s effects were already being felt because spring never came and summer never
warmed as crops everywhere failed to grow, so it was the worst year for farmers in modern
times, but globally the temperature fell by only about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit, which means
earth’s natural thermostat is an exceedingly delicate instrument.
2. Columbus- repeated summarize written text
When Christopher Columbus arrived at Hispaniola during his first transatlantic voyage in the
year A.D. 1492, the island had already been settled by Native Americans for about 5,000 years.
The occupants in Columbus’s time were a group of Arawak Indians called Tainos who lived by
farming, were organized into five chiefdoms, and numbered around half a million (the estimates
range from 100,000 to 2,000,000). Columbus initially found them peaceful and friendly, until
he and his Spaniards began mistreating them. Unfortunately for the Tainos, they had gold, which
the Spanish coveted but didn’t want to go to the work of mining themselves. Hence the
conquerors divided up the island and its Indian population among individual Spaniards, who
put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected them with Eurasian diseases and
murdered them. By the year 1519, 27 years after Columbus’s arrival, that original population
of half a million had been reduced to about 11,000, most of whom died that year of smallpox
to bring the population down to 3,000.
While Columbus initially found Tainos peaceful and friendly, he and his Spaniards began
mistreating them because Tainos had gold which the Spanish coveted but didn’t want
to go to mining themselves, so the conquerors divided up the island and its Indian population
among individual Spaniards, who put the Indians to work as virtual slaves, accidentally infected
them with Eurasian diseases, and murdered them, which means the original population of Taios
had been reduced.
3. Online teaching & Online Learning
What makes teaching online unique is that it uses the internet, especially the World Wide Web,
as the primary means of communication. Thus, when you teach online, you don’t have to be
someplace to teach. You don’t have to lug your briefcase full of paper or your laptop to a
classroom, stand at a lectern, scribble on a chalkboard (or even use your high-tech, interactive
classroom “smart” whiteboard), or grade papers in a stuffy room while your students take a test.
You don’t even have to sit in your office waiting for students to show up for conferences. You
can hold “office hours” on weekends or at night after dinner. You can do all this while living in
a small town in Wyoming or a big city like Bangkok, even if you are working for a college
whose administrative office is located in Florida or Dubai. You can attend an important
conference in Hawaii on the same day you teach your class in New Jersey, logging on from
your laptop via the local café’s wireless hotspot or your hotel room’s high-speed network. Or
you may simply pull out your smartphone to quickly check on the latest postings, email, or text
messages from students.
Online learning offers more freedom for students as well. They can search for courses using the
Web, scouring their institution or even the world for programs, classes, and instructors that fit
their needs. Having found an appropriate course, they can enrol and register, shop for their
books, read articles, listen to lectures, submit their homework assignments, confer with their
instructors, and receive their final grades-all online.
They can assemble virtual classrooms, joining other students from diverse geographical locales,
foraging bonds and friendships not possible in conventional classrooms, which are usually
limited to students from a specific geographical area.
While what makes teaching online unique is that it uses the internet as the primary means of
communication, teachers don’t have to be someplace to teach when teaching online, and online
learning also offers more freedom for students as well because they can assemble virtual
classrooms to do things not possible in a conventional classroom, which eliminate limitation to
students from a specific geographical area.
4. Orbital Debris
For decades, space experts have worried that a speeding bit of orbital debris might one day
smash a large spacecraft into hundreds of pieces and start a chain reaction, a slow cascade of
collisions that would expand for centuries, spreading chaos through the heavens.
In the last decade or so, as scientists came to agree that the number of objects in orbit had
surpassed a critical mass — or, in their terms, the critical spatial density, the point at which a
chain reaction becomes inevitable — they grew more anxious.
Early this year, after a half-century of growth, the federal list of detectable objects (four inches
wide or larger) reached 10,000, including dead satellites, spent rocket stages, a camera, a hand
tool and junkyards of whirling debris left over from chance explosions and destructive tests. So
our billion dollars of satellites are at risk.
While space experts have worried that orbital debris might one day smash a large spacecraft
into pieces and start a chain reaction, a scientist recently came to agree that the number of orbital
debris had surpassed the critical spatial density, which means our billion dollars of satellites at
5. Nutrition science
Most of the time when I embark on such an investigation, it quickly becomes clear that matters
are much more complicated and ambiguous — several shades greyer — than I thought to go
in. Not this time. The deeper I delved into the confused and confusing thicket of nutritional
science, sorting through the long-running fats versus carb wars, the fiber skirmishes and the
raging dietary supplement debates, the simpler the picture gradually became. I learned that in
fact science knows a lot less about nutrition than you would expect – that in fact nutrition
science is, to put it charitably, a very young science. It’s still trying to figure out exactly what
happens in your body when you sip a soda, or what is going on deep in the soul of a carrot to make it so good for you, or why in the world you have so many neurons – brain cells! – in your
stomach, of all places. It’s a fascinating subject, and someday the field may produce definitive
answers to the nutritional questions that concern us, but — as nutritionists themselves will tell
you — they’re not there yet. Not even close. Nutrition science, which after all only got started
less than two hundred years ago, is today approximately where surgery was in the year 1650 –
very promising, and very interesting to watch, but are you ready to let them operate on you? I
think I’ll wait awhile.
While science knows a lot less about nutrition than we would expect, nutritionists are still trying
to figure out exactly what happens in your body because nutrition science is a very young
science, but nutrition science is very promising and interesting to watch.
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